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An innovative approach of using online problem‑based learning and case‑based learning in teaching disaster nursing during the COVID‑19 pandemic
Yin-Ji LIANG, Wei-Ju CHEN, Shuang ZHOU, Lin WANG, Qiu-Ying LIAO, Wan-Xian LU, Chen-Li LIN
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2020, 2 (4): 196-202.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_44_20
Abstract95)      PDF(pc) (540KB)(79)      

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the learning experience effect of online problem-based learning (PBL) and case-based learning (CBL) in teaching disaster nursing.

Methods: According to the characteristics of online PBL and CBL, the revised curriculum experience questionnaire (CEQ) was used to evaluate the teaching quality. Cronbach’s coefficient and the reliability of the splithalf reliability questionnaire were calculated. The exploratory factor analysis of 26 items was carried out by principal component analysis and maximum variance rotation method. KaiserMeyerOlkin (KMO) and Bartlett’s tests were used to test the validity of the questionnaire. The comparison between groups was performed by oneway analysis of variance.

Results: A total of 191 questionnaires were issued and 183 copies were recovered, with a recovery rate of 95.8%. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of CEQ is 0.929, and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of each dimension is between 0.713 and 0.924. After factor analysis, the KMO value was 0.817. The 26 items finally returned to 6 principal components, and all factor load values were above 0.7, indicating good factor analysis effect. This study found that students who learned disaster nursing had an ideal online learning experience, and the average value of CEQ was 3.74 ± 0.42. In particular, male students, senior students or medical students had a higher curriculum experience score. In addition, compared with the national recruitment, the international students have higher curriculum experience score on the dimension of Appropriate Assessment Scale, indicating that the international students are more inclined to use online PBL and CBL.

Conclusions: Using the revised CEQ is an innovative approach to evaluate the effect of online PBL and CBL in teaching disaster nursing, which can improve students’ experience and curriculum quality.


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Anxiety and perception among nurses toward the outbreak of COVID‑19 in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Akwa Ibom State
Emilia James OYIRA, Easter Chukwudi OSUCHUKWU, Margaret Mombel OPIAH, Ndukaku Nwakwe CHINAZAEKPERE, Teresa Achi OSAJI, Augusta Nkechi EMEH, Chinedu Godwin AWO
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2020, 2 (4): 186-189.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_43_20
Abstract70)      PDF(pc) (509KB)(105)      

Purpose: This study sought to examine the anxiety and perception of nurses toward the outbreak of COVID-19 in University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH). Two research questions one hypothesis were used. What is the level of anxiety among nurses toward the outbreak of COVID-19? What is the perception of nurses toward the outbreak of COVID-19? The hypothesis states that there is no significant relationship between anxiety and perception of nurses toward the outbreak of COVID-19. Literature was reviewed based on the research variables.

Methods: The research instrument used in collecting the data for the analysis was a questionnaire administered to 100 nurses in UUTH, Uyo. Their responses were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, and Chi-square analysis, and the following results were obtained.

Results: The results indicated that 36 (36%) of the respondents strongly agreed that most nurses perceive that poor provision of equipment’s in the hospital result into the transmission of COVID-19 to another person, 35 (35%) agreed, 20 (20%) of the respondents strongly agreed, whereas 9 (9%) of the respondents disagreed. Majority of the respondents 56 (56%) strongly agreed that nurses sometimes perceive that patients sometimes harbor COVID-19 without showing the symptoms.

Conclusion:  The above data, therefore, showed that nurses in UUTH, Uyo, had moderate perception toward COVID-19.

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The impact of sleep quality on reported anxiety and fatigue among shift nurses: The mediating role of resilience
Xin-Ge WANG, Yan-Yan LUO, Shuan-Rong LI
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2020, 2 (4): 190-195.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_39_20
Abstract63)      PDF(pc) (590KB)(91)      

 Aims: The aim of this article is to explore the relation of sleep quality, anxiety status, fatigue level and psychological resilience among rotating?shift nurses, thus, to ropose solutions and promote physical and psychological health of shift nurses.

Methods: The cross?sectional survey was performed on 263 clinical nurses recruited from three tertiary hospitals of Xinxiang City, Henan Province, China from October 2017 to June 2018. The questionnaire survey was conducted using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for measuring nurses’ sleep quality, connor-davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC) for measuring their psychological resilience, self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) for measuring their anxiety status, and Fatigue-14 Scale for measuring their fatigue. The relationship among above indicators were analysed using Pearson correlation analysis. The mediating effect of psychological resilience on the process of sleep quality impacting anxiety and fatigue was analyzed using Wen’s causual steps method and linear regression.

Results: The mean CD?RISC score of shift nurses was 57.76 ± 11.90, which indicated that resilience level was at a medium level. The mean of PSQI, SAS and total fatigue score was (7.53 ± 2.83), (50.56 ± 9.57) and (7.81 ± 9.42), respectively. Resilience could negatively predict the anxiety state (β= 0.366, P < 0.01) and fatigue (β = 0.197, P < 0.01). Sleep quality could positively predict anxiety (β = 0.395, P < 0.01) and fatigue level (β = 0.495, P < 0.01) for shift nurses. The mediating effects of resilience upon sleep quality and anxiety or fatigue was 0.044 and 0.026, respectively.

Conclusion: The resilience could fuel sleep quality and reduce the occurrence of negative emotion and fatigue among shift nurses. 

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Sleep disturbance in patients with cancer
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2020, 2 (4): 153-159.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_48_20
Abstract63)      PDF(pc) (493KB)(71)      
Patients diagnosed with cancer often experience sleep disturbance in the form of poor sleep patterns or insomnia that can start on diagnosis and continue until the end of the individual’s life. The aim of this review is to discuss current definitions and theories of sleep disturbance, its prevalence, the underlying physiological and psychological correlates, measurement scales, and possible intervention and management strategies. Equally important, regular assessment is worthwhile for sleep disturbance and quality of life among cancer patients. Therefore, it is advisable for health-care professionals to conduct regular assessment of sleep disturbance for cancer patients and provide appropriate management.
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Assessing the reasons for increase in self‑medication and control measures among student nurses in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Edo State, Nigeria
Olaolorunpo OLORUNFEMI, Sarah Olayinka FALEKE, Omotayo Mercy OLORUNFEMI, Vitalis OKAFOR, Uche Gift EMIARE
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2020, 2 (4): 179-185.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_46_20
Abstract62)      PDF(pc) (528KB)(55)      

Background: Self-medication among student nurses is the use of medicines without doctor’s prescription. This practice is a global phenomenon and potential contributor to human resistance to most drugs, associated with different types of health challenges. Despite the high knowledge on the complication of self-medication, studies showed that most student nurses still practice selfmedication.

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the reasons for increase in selfmedication and and find ways on how to curbing the menace among student nurses in the School of Nursing, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Edo State, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: A descriptive crosssectional survey was conducted with stratified simple random sampling technique to select ninety student nurses from three different levels in the School of Nursing, University of Benin Teaching Hospital in Benin City, Edo State. A selfstructured questionnaire with opentype and Likerttype scale questions used as instrument to assess the reasons for increase in selfmedication and the possible control measures. Data collected were analyzed using tables, percentages, means, standard deviation, and t-test for inferential statistics at 0.05 level of significance, through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software.

Results: The result showed the reasons for increase in selfmedication and how to reduce its occurrence. It also showed that the gender of the student nurses is statistically related to the reasons why they practice selfmedication (t = 6.82, P 0.001).

Conclusion: Selfmedication can be reduced among student nurses by empowering the law enforcement agencies against selfmedication, improving the availability of essential and quality drugs in school clinics, and inclusion of all student nurses in National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) program, where they can enjoy the benefit of paying only 10% of the treatment charges.


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Analysis of status quo and research progress in nursing care for different typed coronavirus disease 2019: A literature review
Bing‑Rui WEI, Dian Francis SAVELLANO, Cui‑Huan HU
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2020, 2 (4): 160-171.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_37_20
Abstract61)      PDF(pc) (546KB)(80)      
At present, patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are showing a surge in the world, to explore the clinical characteristics, treatment, and care of different types of COVID-19. The authors reviewed the existing literature, selected, and analyzed the diagnosis and treatment records of 11 patients with COVID-19 who were initially cured, including patient information, clinical manifestations, auxiliary examination results, treatment principles, nursing evaluation, nursing goals, nursing diagnosis, and nursing measures, and found clinical similarities and differences in the care of different types of patients. Among them, nine patients recovered and discharged after receiving treatment, and two died. As there is no specific medicine, only symptomatic treatment and supportive treatment can be given. Eleven common nursing measures and special nursing measures of different levels were carried out for patients diagnosed with mild, common, severe, and critical illnesses, and different treatment methods were given according to the severity of signs and symptoms. By summarizing the similarities and differences of clinical nursing interventions, we hope to help improve the quality of care for patients diagnosed with COVID-19.
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Effect of health locus of control on the quality of life among hemodialysis patients
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (1): 5-11.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_56_20
Abstract58)      PDF(pc) (668KB)(55)      

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of health locus of control on the quality of life on hemodialysis patients.

Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized controlled trial. Participants were 78 dialysis patients among 17–70 years old including 39 cases in the training program and 39 cases in control groups. Kidney disease quality of life-short form and the health locus of control scale-form A were used. Questionnaires were completed before and 8 weeks after the intervention by two groups.

Results: The results of the paired t-test showed that the mean scores of physical component summary, mental component summary, and components of renal disease in the test group increased significantly after the intervention. There was also a significant difference between the test and control groups only about powerful others.

Conclusion: The education based on health locus of control can have a positive effect on the life quality of hemodialysis patients.

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Nursing administration in the geriatric department in the epidemic of COVID‑19
Hui FAN, Pei-Bei DUAN, Cai-Yun NIE, Chun-Xia MA
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2020, 2 (4): 207-210.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_53_20
Abstract54)      PDF(pc) (557KB)(57)      
In order to strengthen the prevention and management in the geriatric department during the pandemic of COVID-19 and to explore how to implement nursing measures to control the spread of COVID-19 to elderly patients, our geriatric department established a leading group for epidemic prevention to train the medical staffs, the patients and caregivers and implemented a set of measures such as controlling the source of infection, cutting off the transmission route, and rehabilitation nursing of Chinese medicine, thus achieved zero infection of medical staff and elderly patients.
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Effect of mild moxibustion in improving the quality of life of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy
Dou-Dou LI, Yu-Hua ZHU, Ting-Li YOU, Yun-Xia GE, Xiao-Rong LIU, Xiao SUN
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2020, 2 (4): 203-206.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_41_20
Abstract54)      PDF(pc) (529KB)(112)      

Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of mild moxibustion on quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN).

Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients with type 2 DPN from October 2018 to July 2019 were recruited in the present study and randomly divided into two groups: 7 cases in the control group and 28 cases in the intervention group. The control group received routine treatment of hypoglycemic, hypotensive, mecobalamin nutritional nerve, while the intervention group received mild moxibustion on the basis of the control group. The course of treatment for both groups was 10 weeks. The quality of life of the two groups was assessed using short form-36 health survey and compared with t-test at 0.05 significance level.

Results: The total score of the short form-36 in the intervention group was higher than the control group (P < 0.05); the scores of bodily pain, physical functioning (PF), general health (GH), and mental health dimensions in the intervention group increased significantly compared with the control group (P < 0.05); the scores of role physical, social functioning (SF), vitality, and role-emotional (RE) dimensions showed no between-group difference (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: Mild moxibustion can effectively improve the quality of life of patients with type 2 DPN, relieve patient pain symptoms, and improve PF and GH.


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Mediating effect of undergraduate nursing students’ professional commitment on positive psychological capital and learning burnout
Huanze LI, Hongfang CHEN, Miaoqing ZHUANG, Yue LIU, Jiayi WANG, Luyu ZHANG
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (1): 25-29.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_01_20
Abstract49)      PDF(pc) (726KB)(48)      
Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the mediating role of professional commitment of undergraduate nursing students between positive psychological capital (PsyCap) and learning burnout.
Materials and Methods: A cluster sampling method was used to survey 442 students of a bachelor’s degree in freshman to the junior
in a medical college in Shaanxi Province.
Results: Professional commitment was positively related to positive PsyCap (= 0.487, P < 0.01), while positive PsyCap and professional commitment were negatively related to learning burnout (r = 0.456, r = 0.411, P all < 0.01). There are certain mediating effects of professional commitment in the relationship between positive PsyCap and learning burnout. The mediating effect value of professional commitment is - 0.065, accounting for 16.08% of the total effect.
Conclusion: Nursing educators in medical colleges and universities should focus on developing and training the positive PsyCap of undergraduate nursing students, thereby enhancing and stabilizing their professional commitment level and reducing the risk of learning burnout.
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Construction of nursing standard of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine for patients with COVID‑19 (mild and common) in Beijing based on Delphi method
Jing ZHANG, Xue‑Ling MA, Jian‑Hua DENG, Jing LI, Zhi‑Yun ZHANG, Ling TANG
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2020, 2 (4): 172-178.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_54_20
Abstract46)      PDF(pc) (545KB)(65)      

Objective: The objective of this study is to establish a nursing standard of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine for patients with COVID-19 (mild and common) in Beijing, to provide reference for clinical nursing of patients with COVID-19 (mild and common).

Methods: Through online communication meeting with nurses who are in the frontline of anti-epidemic, clinical investigation, literature research, and expert demonstration meeting are carried out to prepare the draft of the standard, and the Delphi method is applied to determine the standard of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine care for patients with COVID-19 (mild and common) in Beijing.

Results: The nursing standard of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine for patients with COVID-19 (mild and common) was established, which included 5 first-level indicators, 14 second-level indicators and 60 third-level indicators. After two rounds of Delphi method, the positive coefficients of experts were 96% and 83%, the authoritative coefficients of experts were 0.89 and 0.91, and the Kendalls coefficient of concordance (W) of experts were 0.12, 0.09, 0.10, 0.13 (P < 0.05) and 0.44, 0.43, 0.37, 0.39 (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The standard of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine nursing for patients with COVID-19 (mild and common) in Beijing constructed by the Delphi method is scientific and practical, which provides a reference for clinical application of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine nursing to fight against COVID-19 infection.


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Teaching traditional Chinese medicine classics to clinical nurses: Taking Treatise on Cold Damage for example
Ling TANG, Jing LIU, Jing‑Jin XU, Xue‑Ling MA
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (1): 1-4.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_04_20
Abstract46)      PDF(pc) (464KB)(34)      
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Analysis of the necessity of implementing the “dual specialty” training model from the perspective of nursing master students
Miao‑Qing ZHUANG, Hong‑Fang CHEN, Huan‑Ze LI
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (1): 30-35.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_60_20
Abstract45)      PDF(pc) (531KB)(32)      

Objective: The objective is to understand the current situation of clinical practice training for nursing master’s degree postgraduates, and discuss the necessity of implementing the “dual specialty” training mode for nursing master’s degree postgraduates in China.

Methods: Phenomenological research method was used to conduct semi-structured in-depth interviews with 10 nursing master’s degree graduates, and the data were analyzed by Colaizzi 7-step analysis method.

Results: Four topics were extracted: The objective of clinical practice training for nursing master degree postgraduates was not specific; the cultivation direction is not refined; the ability of clinical practice is weak; the research direction is not consistent with the required position.

Conclusion: Implementing special double training mode can solve nursing professional master degree postgraduate education lacking the ability to service the needs of society, graduate students and the existing problems of specialist nurse training and the cultivation of “heavy science, light clinical practice” status quo and the effective way of guiding graduate students career planning, so the implementation of special “double” training mode is necessary.

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The impacts of resilience on the association between illness uncertainty and sleep quality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Xin‑Ge WANG, Yu‑Qiong WEN, Hui‑Bing KUANG, Li‑Xia LIN, Hong CUI
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (1): 12-18.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_59_20
Abstract45)      PDF(pc) (644KB)(32)      
Objective: The objective was to investigate the relationship between resilience, illness uncertainty, and sleep quality in patients with type 2
diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods: This cross?sectional study was conducted from September 2019 to August 2020 from a tertiary hospital in Guangzhou, China. Totally, 205 participants completed questionnaires concerning demographic characteristics, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, Mishel uncertainty in illness scale (MUIS), and Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISR) were collected by convenience sampling. Multiple hierarchical regression
analysis was used to evaluate the interaction of illness uncertainty, resilience, and sleep quality. The mediating role of resilience was also tested.
Results: The total score of illness uncertainty was 94.68 ± 11.19 in T2DM patients, which was proved in the medium level. There was a significant negative correlation between the total CD-RISR score and total MUIS score (r = 0.716, P < 0.01); there was a significant negative
correlation between the total CD-RISR score and total PISQ score (r = 0.806, P < 0.01); total MUIS score was positively correlated with PISQ score (r = 0.872, P < 0.01). Psychological resilience could partially mediate the association between sleep quality and the level of illness uncertainty, and the mediating effect was 0.293, accounting for 34.20% of the total effect.
Conclusion: Patients with T2DM have a moderate level of illness uncertainty, and it was negatively correlated with mental resilience level and positively associated with sleep quality. Medical staff should strengthen psychological intervention for T2DM patients to reduce the sense of uncertainty.
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Application of empowerment education in health education for cancer patients
Yan PENG, Lin HAN, Fang‑Fang AN, Li LI, Yue‑Li HOU
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (1): 46-50.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_58_20
Abstract45)      PDF(pc) (519KB)(38)      
Empowerment education aims to stimulate the intrinsic motivation of patients and make them pay more attention to their own health so as to control the disease. This paper expounds the concept, theoretical framework, implementer, object, implementation steps, forms, and evaluation methods of empowerment education for cancer patients, in order to provide practical guidance for clinical workers.
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Correlation between psychological factors and the expression of galanin and 5‑hydroxytryptamine in different subtypes of gastroesophageal reflux disease
Yuan YUAN, Hui-Wen XU, Song ZHANG, En TAKASHI, Kitayama AKIO, Jing‑Yan LIANG
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (1): 36-41.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_57_20
Abstract44)      PDF(pc) (829KB)(39)      
 Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the differences in galanin (GAL) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in patients with different subtypes of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its correlation with anxiety and depression in patients.
Methods: Using the reflux disease questionnaire, 238 patients with GERD were selected as the study group. According to the endoscopic performance, they were divided into the nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) group (114 patients) and the RE group (124 patients). Sixty healthy people were selected as the control group. All research subjects were tested using the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and the self?rating depression scale (SDS) to assess the severity of anxiety and depression. The levels of 5-HT and GAL were analyzed using enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: Compared with the control group, 5-HT level in GERD patients without anxiety and depression was higher (t = 1.97, P < 0.05) and GAL level was lower (t = 1.97, P < 0.05). NERD patients demonstrated more server anxiety (F = 55.92, P < 0.05) and depression problems (F = 36.51, P < 0.05) compared to reflux esophagitis (RE) patients. The 5-HT level was lower (F = 54.53, P < 0.05) and the GAL level was higher (F = 8.00, P < 0.05) in NERD patients compared with the control group. Furthermore, 5-HT level was negatively correlated with SAS (r = 0.789, P < 0.05) and SDS (r =  0.787, P < 0.05) scores; GAL level was positively correlated with SAS (r = 0.688, P < 0.05) and SDS (r = 0.705, P < 0.05) scores; 5-HT and GAL level were negatively correlated (r=  0.744, P < 0.05).
Conclusions: 5-HT level is higher and GAL level was lower in GERD patients without anxiety and depression than healthy people; the ymptoms of anxiety and depression of NERD patients are more severe compared to those of RE patients; the severity of anxiety and depression was negatively correlated with the level of 5-HT and positively with GAL level.
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Pelvic floor muscle exercises as adjunct therapy for urinary incontinence among female nurses in the era of COVID‑19 pandemic
Chidiebere Emmanuel OKECHUKWU
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2020, 2 (4): 211-212.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_49_20
Abstract44)      PDF(pc) (383KB)(71)      
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A nursing study on five‑animal frolics in improving anxiety and depression of inpatients
Xiaoxin LI, Xu WANG, Fang REN, Jinyu GUO, Shufen ZHANG, Ling TANG
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (1): 42-45.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_03_20
Abstract43)      PDF(pc) (624KB)(31)      
Objective: The objective is to investigate the effect of five-animal frolics on anxiety and depression of hospitalized inpatients.
Materials and Methods: Totally 50 inpatients from departments of Internal Medicine, Surgery and General Medicine with hospital admission date between January 2019 and July 2020 were included. All patients exercise five-animal frolics under the professional guidance of the nurse in charge. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess the conditions of anxiety and depression of patients before and after taking five-animal frolics exercise.
Results: The overall score of anxiety patients was significantly lower after five-animal frolics exercise than before [6.0 (5.0, 8.0) vs. 10.0 (8.0, 12.0), Z=-5.466, P 0.001]; the overall depression score of patients was significantly lower after five-animal frolics exercise than before [6.5 (4.0, 8.0) vs. 10.0 (8.0, 14.0), Z=-5.175, P 0.001]. There were 26 (52.0%) very effective cases after exercise, 16 (32.0%) effective cases, 8 (16.0%) invalid cases, and the effective rate was 84.0%
Conclusion: Taking five-animal frolics exercise can improve anxiety and depression of inpatients.
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Scientific publications in nursing journals from East Asia: A survey of literature
Zhi-Chen LIU, Ya-Lou PU, Yong-Hua WANG, Li GAO, Jing WANG, Bao-Hua CAO
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (1): 19-24.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_51_20
Abstract36)      PDF(pc) (944KB)(26)      
Background: East Asia is one of the most important economy and research force in the world. However, the trend of published articles in various areas of East Asia has not been reported.
Methods: We used PubMed and Web of Science databases to search for articles published from China, South Korea, and Japan in 59 nursing journals, from January 2008 to December 2017.
Results: The results indicated that Journal of Clinical Nursing is the most popular journal in East Asia and the number of articles published in China has shown a steady upward trend, surpassing Japan and South Korea (from 204 in 2008 to 320 in 2017). South Korea has increased rapidly since 2013 (from 65 in 2013 to 144 in 2017).
Conclusion: We conclude that China is the most influenced country with the largest number of articles in the field of nursing in East Asia. It is worth noting that the number of articles published in Japan has been slowly declining since 2015.
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Improving the delivery of medical education in rural medical colleges
Saurabh RamBihariLal SHRIVASTAVA, Prateek Saurabh SHRIVASTAVA
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (1): 51-52.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_07_20
Abstract34)      PDF(pc) (452KB)(27)      
It is a fact that in most of the rural settings, especially in low- and middle-income nations, the access to health care services and facilities is quite difficult. The primary reason for origin of this problem lies in the fact that a major proportion of medical professionals are not willing to serve in rural areas. This is in turn can be linked with the obvious geographical disparity in distribution of medical colleges in both rural and urban settings, with most of them being present in urban locations. In order to accomplish the vision to create a cadre of competent medical professionals, who are fit to work in the capacity of a primary health care physician, it is an indispensable requirement to sensitize and give adequate number of learning experiences pertaining to rural medical education. The process of planning and execution of rural medical education needs careful and systematic consideration, otherwise we will find ourselves short in achieving the intended learning outcomes. To conclude, rural medical education is an important aspect of the medical training. It is high time that all the stakeholders join their hands and work together to improve the competence level of medical students and play our part in the making of a community health physician.
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Control effect of structured skin care plan of integrated Chinese and Western medicine in elderly patients with incontinence‑associated dermatitis
Jian‑Hua DENG, Xiu‑Li LI, Li‑Li NIU, Yuan‑Yuan LI, Jing ZHANG, Ling TANG
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (2): 62-66.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_013_20
Abstract28)      PDF(pc) (577KB)(16)      
Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the clinical effects of structured skin care plan of integrated Chinese and Western medicine in intervening elderly patients with incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD).
Materials and Methods: Totally, 66 elderly patients with IAD were randomly divided into the experiment group (32 cases) and control group (34 cases). The control group was given routine nursing care, while the experiment group was given a structured skin care plan. The observational course was 2 weeks. The treatment efficiency and healing time were compared between the two groups.
Results: After 2-week intervention, the total effective rate of the experiment group was higher than that of the control group (97.1% vs. 78.1%, X2 = 3.913, P = 0.048). The skin assessment tool score of the experiment group was lower than that of the control group (0.56 ± 1.58 vs. 1.75 ± 2.46, Z = ?2.401, P = 0.016). The healing time of the experiment group was shorter than that of the control group (7.29 ± 4.76 days vs. 10.69 ± 6.36 days, Z = ?2.280, P = 0.026).
Conclusion: The structured skin care plan of integrated Chinese and Western medicine showed a good effect in elderly IAD patients, and provided a reference for clinical treatment and care of elderly patients with IAD.
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Effect of structured education program on physiological and psychosocial outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients: A randomized controlled trial
Qianqian ZHOU, Xiaorong LIU, Jianing LI, Jinlan YAO, Qingqing LOU
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (2): 72-79.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_09_20
Abstract23)      PDF(pc) (659KB)(15)      
Objective: This study was conducted to compare the effect of structured education program versus traditional diabetes education on insulin injection technique as well as physiologically and psychosocially related outcomes in adults with Type 2 diabetes.
Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized controlled trial. Totally, 71 Type 2 diabetes patients of using the insulin pen were enrolled and randomly divided into the intervention group (n = 36) and the control group (n = 35) according to random number table method. Patients in the intervention group received structured education program, while patients in the control group received traditional diabetes education. The levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood glucose, and lipids were monitored before and 3 months after intervention, and the insulin injection techniques, diabetes distress, and diabetes self-management skills between groups were assessed after 3 months.
Results: Finally, 65 participants (intervention group: n = 33, control group: n = 32) finished the study. After the intervention, HbA1c was lower (7.42 ± 0.80 vs. 8.35 ± 1.40, P = 0.002), fasting blood glucose (FBG) was lower (7.27 ± 1.06 vs. 9.40 ± 3.16, P < 0.001), and postprandial blood glucose (PBG) was lower (10.33 ± 2.20 vs. 12.77 ± 4.94, P = 0.012) in the intervention group than in the control group. No statistically significance was identified between the two groups in scores of Diabetes Distress Scale and summary of diabetes self-care activities.
Conclusion: Patients with Type 2 diabetes received structured education program, with greater improvements achieved in HbA1c, FBG, PBG, and measures about insulin injection techniques compared to the traditional education group, but there was no significant difference in diabetes distress or self-management behavior between groups.
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Operations of school health program assessment at selected secondary schools in Egor Local Government Area, Benin City, Nigeria
Eunice Amaechi OSIAN, Osagumwenro IGBINOBA, Olaolorunpo OLORUNFEMI, Monday Ugiagbe AGBONKPOLOR
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (2): 56-61.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_5_21
Abstract23)      PDF(pc) (545KB)(11)      
Background: School health program (SHP) is the most cost-effective investment a nation can make to simultaneously improve education and health conditions of her citizen. In spite of this, the adoption of SHP in developing countries is still below set standard. Therefore, this study assesses the operations of SHP in secondary schools in Egor Local Government Area (LGA), Benin City, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted with accidental sampling method to select 56 school health teachers from secondary schools in Egor LGA. A self-structured instrument was used to collect data based on the research objectives. Data collected were analyzed using percentages, means, and standard deviation.
Results: This study showed that despite high level of the program awareness, the actualization of its objective was found to be poor, and this was found to be related with the lack of government support, lack of needed personnel and materials, lack of effective supervision of the program and inappropriate funding.
Conclusion: In-service training on SHP should be provided to enhance the skills needed for implementation of SHP. The government should provide needed materials and equipment and employ competent health personnel to take charge of the school health services, and other policymakers should mobilize and strengthen SHP and education activities at the state.
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Discussion on optimizing nursing rounds model based on the inheritance of traditional Chinese medicine nursing
Xue‑Jian ZHANG, Ling TANG, Jing ZHANG, Yue TANG
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (2): 53-55.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_05_20
Abstract20)      PDF(pc) (409KB)(12)      
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The effect of baduanjin exercise in rehabilitation for functional ankle instability: A study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot trial
Li ZHOU, Juanjuan AI, Qingwen GENG, Kuangshi LI, Yiting SUN, Ruyu YAN, Diyang LYU, Zongheng LI
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (2): 85-92.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_012_20
Abstract19)      PDF(pc) (663KB)(11)      
Introduction: Patients with functional ankle instability (FAI) have problems with joint control, balance, gait, and postural symmetry. Baduanjin is a type of traditional Chinese exercise that has been shown to be effective in treating many diseases and symptoms. However, to date, the effect of Baduanjin in patients with FAI has not been proved. This pilot trial is an assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial, and its objective is to study the efficacy and safety of Baduanjin on the rehabilitation of patients with FAI.
Methods: Seventy-two participants, who are eligible according to specified inclusion and exclusion criteria, will be randomized (in a 1:1 ratio), using a random number table, into two groups: a Baduanjin group and a conventional treatment group. The Baduanjin group will be subjected to the Baduanjin exercise in addition to the conventional treatment therapy. Participants' exercise programs will be implemented for 4 weeks (5 days a week). All participants will be assessed at baseline, and after two and 4 weeks of treatment. The surface electromyography results of the bilateral erector spinae, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus will be the primary outcomes, while the balance function under different conditions and the level of FAI in daily life measured using the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool will be the secondary outcomes.
Ethics and Dissemination: The trial has been approved by the Research Ethical Committee of Dongzhimen Hospital, the First Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (no. DZMEC-KY-2019-18), and it will follow the principles of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statements as well as the Declaration of Helsinki. The findings of this study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. The results will also be disseminated to the participants via phone calls or e-mail.
Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Register ID: ChiCTR1900021939 (March 17, 2019).
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Nursing care of a patient with programmed cell death protein‑1 immunotherapy‑related myocarditis combined with coronary heart disease
Wen-Qi HUANG, Yan-Bing QING, Li-Fang MA, Zhang-Qi LI, Chun-Xiang SU
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (2): 93-96.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_17_21
Abstract17)      PDF(pc) (485KB)(10)      
This report introduced and summarized the nursing care experience for a senior patient with lung cancer and developed programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) immunotherapy-related myocarditis combined with coronary heart disease (CHD) after receiving said treatment. In this case, immune myocarditis with CHD occurred shortly after implementing the PD-1 immunotherapy, yet the patient presented no clinical symptoms. Frequent nursing attention and close observation are so required for monitoring the patient's status and updating the physicians for a swift control of the myocarditis. For this case, nursing care procedures vital for the successful recovery of the patient included condition observation, position management, pre- and postcoronary angiography care, infection prevention, hemorrhage prevention, venous access port maintenance, pain care, trachea care, psychological care, diet care, environment management, and health education. After receiving effective, successful treatment and care, the patient was discharged after 13 days of treatment with generally satisfying overall conditions.
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Analysis of risk factors for lymphedema of the lower limbs after endometrial cancer surgery and suggestions for prevention and treatment
Qian ZHANG, Li-Xiu LIU
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (2): 67-71.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_13_21
Abstract17)      PDF(pc) (580KB)(13)      
Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the risk factors for the occurrence of lower limb lymphedema in patients with endometrial cancer after surgery and to make recommendations for prevention and treatment.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 135 patients with endometrial cancer treated in the Department of Gynecology of the Affiliated Hospital of Shaanxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from January 2013 to December 2019 and analyzed the risk factors of lower limb lymphedema in patients with endometrial cancer after surgery using single factor analysis and multi-factor logistic regression analysis.
Results: The incidence of postoperative lower limb lymphedema in patients with endometrial cancer was 11.11%. The results of one-way Chi-square test analysis showed that body mass index (BMI), surgical method, number of lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy were related to the occurrence of lower limb lymphedema, and multi-factor logistic analysis showed that BMI (odds ratio [OR] = 6.207), number of lymph node dissection (OR = 4.223), and radiotherapy (OR = 8.081) were the risk factors for lower limb lymphedema after endometrial cancer surgery.
Conclusion: Patients with endometrial cancer with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, high number of lymph node dissection, and postoperative radiotherapy are more likely to develop lower limb lymphedema, and they should be given priority attention and timely preventive and curative measures.


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Application of rehabilitation nursing technology in the pulmonary rehabilitation of the patients after lung cancer operation
Yuzhen XU, Lin HAN
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2021, 3 (2): 79-84.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_4_21
Abstract15)      PDF(pc) (497KB)(12)      
The rehabilitation nursing of lung function at home for lung cancer patients after operation can not only improve the level of lung function and the quality of life but also improve the compliance of patients with treatment and improve their psychological status. Studies have shown that respiratory training, exercise training and rehabilitation nursing techniques of Chinese medicine, such as Six-Word Qigong , Tai Chi and Baduanjin have better effects on lung function recovery in patients after lung cancer surgery. In this paper, we made review and discussion on the application of the above methods in patients with lung cancer at home after operation.
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