Email Alert   |   RSS
Top Read Articles
Published in last 1 year |  In last 2 years |  In last 3 years |  All
Please wait a minute...
For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
Effect of yoga practice in reducing blood pressure, platelet blood count, and proteinuria in pregnant women with mild preeclampsia
Murdiningsih, Rohaya, Siti HINDUN, Yunetra FRANCISKA, Ocktariyana
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (1): 33-36.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_69_22
Abstract98)      PDF(pc) (583KB)(84)      

Objective: In determining the effects of yoga practice on mild preeclampsia, this study examines the blood pressure, blood platelet (PLT) count, and proteinuria status in pregnant women over 20 weeks of pregnancy.
Materials and Methods: This research is an experimental study with a pre–post intervention design. We collected forty pregnant women with mild preeclampsia from all populations. All participants agreed to practice 30 min of yoga every week for 1 month. The blood pressure, the blood PLT count, and proteinuria were measured before and after the yoga intervention. The statistical analysis used the t-test for the blood PLT count variable, the McNemar test for the proteinuria variable, and the Wilcoxon test for the blood pressure variable.
Results: The results showed a decrease in systole blood pressure from 134.17 ± 7.17 mmHg before a yoga intervention to 120 ± 4.17 mmHg after yoga intervention (P < 0.001) and a decrease in diastole blood pressure from 89.58 ± 5.5 mmHg before the intervention to 79.38 ± 4.25 mmHg after the intervention (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in blood PLT count (P = 0.104) and proteinuria (P = 0.063) before and after a yoga intervention in pregnant women with mild preeclampsia patients.
Conclusions: Yoga exercise during pregnancy (upper 20 weeks of gestation) significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure in mild preeclampsia patients.

Related Articles | Metrics
Expert consensus on diagnosis and treatment of ulcerative colitis with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine: A nursing perspective
Bing XU, Miao LIU, Hairong HU, Jing ZHANG, Yanping HUANG, Ling TANG
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (1): 1-7.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_22_22
Abstract61)      PDF(pc) (521KB)(46)      

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic nonspecific intestinal inflammatory disease of unclear etiology, characterized by continuous and diffuse inflammatory changes of colorectal mucosa. In recent years, the incidence rate of UC in China has increased year by year, but there is no effective cure method in Western medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine treatment based on syndrome differentiation has the unique advantages of simplicity, convenience, effectiveness, and low cost. Therefore, integration of Chinese and Western medicine has become an important strategy for UC diagnosis and treatment, and has made significant progress in UC. On the basis of learning from a number of consensuses at home and abroad, combined with Chinese research results and the actual clinical situation of traditional Chinese and Western medicine, the UC group of the Chinese Association of Integrative Medicine has formulated the expert consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of UC with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. In this consensus, the pathogenesis, etiology and pathogenesis, diagnosis, integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine treatment, and chronic disease management with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine for UC were recommended by experts. This article interprets the consensus from the perspective of nursing in order to provide reference basis for clinical nursing workers.

Related Articles | Metrics
Adolescent health issues: The role of publich health nurses
Oladayo Damilola AKINWALE, Cecilia Bukola BELLO, Mayowa Grace ELEMILE
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (1): 59-65.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_40_22
Abstract57)      PDF(pc) (536KB)(45)      
Adolescent health (AH) is an integral part of public health with the goal of improving the healthy development, safety, and well-being of adolescents because the behavioral patterns established during this period influence the health status of the adolescents and the risk of developing chronic diseases during adulthood. Adolescence being a time of great physical and psychological change, many social and physical conditions as well as behavioral pattern can impact AH and heighten the risk of illness and diseases. This makes adolescents to be susceptible to various health issues by nature because of their stages of development, which affects their ability to make safe decisions, and the need to rely on significant others for support. Other factors like desire for greater autonomy, pressure to conform to peers, exploration of sexual identity, increased access to and use of technology, violence and sexual abuse, social and cultural norms, family circumstances, emotional and physical environment of the adolescents contribute significantly to adolescents' health issues. Therefore, nurses have significant roles to play to ensure optimal growth and development of the adolescents and to prevent and reduce the impact of changes associated with adolescence on the health and well-being of the adolescents. This article presents the concept of adolescence, components of AH, health-related challenges associated with adolescence, and role of public health nurses.
Related Articles | Metrics
Traditional medicine use during pregnancy and labor in African context: A scoping review
Modupe Motunrayo ADAMOLEKUN, Oluwaseyi Abiodun AKPOR, Olaolorunpo OLORUNFEMI, Oghenerobor Benjamin AKPOR
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (1): 66-72.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_56_22
Abstract50)      PDF(pc) (637KB)(78)      
Traditional medicine (TM) has been more popular among pregnant women worldwide and has played a significant part in maternal health-care services in many nations. Herbs, herbal preparations, and finished herbal products all contain active substances that are derived from plant parts or other plant components that are thought to have medicinal advantages. To diagnose, prevent, and treat illnesses as well as to enhance general well-being, about 80% of people use a variety of TM, including herbal remedies. A systematic search of Google Scholar and PubMed was performed utilizing an established scoping review framework by Joanna Briggs Institute from January 2012 to December 2022. A consequent title and abstract review of articles published on TM in the African context were completed. Of over 15,000 published studies identified, 15 meeting the inclusion criteria were integrated into the following seven categorical themes: prevalence of TM use, source of information on TM use, reasons for use of TM, route of administration, common herbs used in pregnancy and labor, the effect of herbs used in pregnancy and labor, and predictors of use of TM. The studies reviewed were primarily in the context of an African setting on the use of TM regarding herbal medicine. Of all the articles, the highest number of studies was conducted in Zimbabwe. This review shows increased use of TM by women during pregnancy and labor with a reported prevalence rate varying from 12% to 60%. However, a decrease in use in the third trimester of pregnancy was reported. The most frequent source of information on the use of TM was from family and friends, while age, parity, education, and income were factors affecting use. In conclusion, the participants do not often disclose the use of TM during their antenatal attendance and the reason for use was accessibility and cost. Therefore, there is a need for further study on the safety and efficacy of TM use in pregnancy and labor.
Related Articles | Metrics
Nursing perspective of expert consensus for diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine
Shuhong LIU, Ling TANG, Yanan ZHAO, Jingjing HUO, Yan ZHAO, Kang YAN, Baoya ZHAO
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (1): 8-14.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_125_22
Abstract47)      PDF(pc) (559KB)(35)      

Gastric cancer is a common and highly malignant tumor of the digestive system, which seriously threatens human health. The benefit of surgical treatment is limited. The effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is not significant, and the toxic and side effects are large. Although the diagnosis and treatment modes of molecular targeting and multidisciplinary cooperation have also been further developed and applied, a relatively unified comprehensive treatment standard scheme has not been formed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), as complementary and alternative medicine, has unique advantages in the development of diagnosis and treatment of diseases in China. Therefore, the Chinese Association of Integrative Medicine formed “Expert Consensus for Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastric Cancer with Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine” on the basis of clinical practice and experience. In this article, the consensus is interpreted from the perspective of nursing, focusing on the pathogenesis, high-risk factors, characteristic therapies of TCM, and nursing of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine for gastric cancer, to provide a reference for front-line medical personnel in the roots in the future nursing care of gastric cancer.

Related Articles | Metrics
An analysis of association of personality traits with job burnout among nurses working in hospital
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (1): 43-49.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_53_22
Abstract41)      PDF(pc) (927KB)(49)      

Objective: The objective of the present study is to explore the effects of personality traits on job burnout among hospital nurses.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional research was done during 2019–2020 at Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital. The data analysis procedures included descriptive statistics and the partial least squares-based structural equation modeling. The participants were 150 nursing professionals. A questionnaire indicating information on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory with three dimensions of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment), and personality profile (measured employing the neuroticism extraversion openness five-factor inventory including extroversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, and openness to experience dimensions) was used to gather the required data.
Results: The results of the study showed that the validity and reliability of the measurement model were desirable (factor load higher than 0.5, the Cronbach's alpha value and the composite reliability are >0.7). Structural model showed statistically drastic, negative relationship between the nurses' burnout levels and neuroticism (β = ?0.722) and openness to experience (β = ?0.437). However, the relationship was significantly positive between the nurses' burnout levels and conscientiousness (β = 0.672), agreement (β = 0.594), and extraversion (β = 0.559) (P < 0.03).
Conclusions: The present study helped the recognition of burnout among nurses working in hospitals and approved the effects of personality features on the burnout experience.

Related Articles | Metrics
Influence of cultural factors on choice of childbirth place among women in Oyigbo Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria
Ngozi Afulenu OBIKA‑NDIRI, Chizoma Millicent NDIKOM, Ogochukwu Immaculate OBIKA, Omineokuma Tubonemi ASEMINASO
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (1): 37-42.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_89_22
Abstract41)      PDF(pc) (615KB)(39)      
Objectives: This study aims to ascertain if cultural factors influence the childbirth place choice of women in Oyigbo.
Materials and Methods: The study used a cross-sectional study design using a self-structured questionnaire as the instrument to collect data from 384 volunteers through simple random sampling, and these data were analyzed using frequency and percentage for descriptive statistics while Chi-square was used for inferential statistics at 0.05 level of significance.
Results: The influence of cultural factors such as family traditions (χ2 = 12.56, P = 0.006), beliefs (χ2 = 70.66, P = 0.000), lack of confidence in health facilities (χ2 = 367.83, P = 0.000), and the presence of male skilled birth attendants (χ2 = 50.85, P = 0.000) were statistically significant to the choice of childbirth place, while patriarchal system (χ2 = 2.99, P = 0.393) was not statistically significant to the choices of childbirth places of women in Oyigbo. Religion had a statistically significant influence on childbirth place (χ2 = 125.46, P = 0.000).
Conclusion: This study shows that religious and cultural factors have a significant influence on the childbirth place choices of women in Oyigbo Local Government Area of Rivers State.
Related Articles | Metrics
A comparison of the effect of Vitamin D and Vitamin E supplementations, alone, and in combination, on reducing the intensity and duration of dysmenorrhea in women: A randomized controlled trial
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (1): 21-26.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_49_22
Abstract37)      PDF(pc) (660KB)(48)      

Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the effect of Vitamin D and Vitamin E supplementations, alone, and in combination, on reducing the intensity and duration of dysmenorrhea in women who were referred to the Kowsar gynecological clinics of Shahid Motahari Hospital of Urmia University of Medical Sciences.
Materials and Methods: A double-blinded clinical trial was conducted on 112 women with dysmenorrhea who were randomly allocated into the four study groups. Finally, 100 women complete the study and received capsules containing a placebo (n = 25), 1000 IU of Vitamin D (n = 25), 400 mg of Vitamin E (n = 25), and 1000 IU of Vitamin D + 400 mg of Vitamin E (n = 25) every 24 h for 2 consecutive months at the beginning of the menstrual period. The pain intensity and duration among groups were compared before and after the intervention.
Results: The mean menstrual pain duration in all three experimental groups (Vitamin E, Vitamin D, and the combination of them) was lower than the placebo group (all P < 0.05), and the mean pain intensity scores in all three experimental groups were significantly lower than the placebo group (all P < 0.05). The results (means) for all of the drugs administered at the end of the 2nd month were better than the 1st month (all P < 0.01).
Conclusions: Vitamin E and Vitamin D, as well as their combination, are recommended as an effective and safe treatment for the management of the complications of dysmenorrhea.

Related Articles | Metrics
Effect of health Qigong on rehabilitation of stroke patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Fengguang GUAN, Qiulu JI
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (1): 15-20.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_67_22
Abstract36)      PDF(pc) (1554KB)(41)      
Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of health Qigong on the rehabilitation of hemiplegic patients after stroke.
Methods: The randomized controlled trials on health Qigong intervention in rehabilitation after stroke were searched in eight databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, Wanfang Database, and VIP Database from the inception to February 2022, and the data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software.
Results: A total of 17 studies involving 1146 hemiplegic patients after stroke were included. Meta-analysis results showed that the motor function and activities of daily living in the intervention group were better than those in the control group at different intervention times (intervention time <3 months and 3 months–24 weeks) (P < 0.01). When the intervention time was <3 months, the improvement of balance function in the intervention group was better than that in the control group (P < 0.01). However, when the intervention time was 3 months–24 weeks, there was no significant difference in the balance function between the intervention group and the control group (P = 0.10).
Conclusion: Health Qigong has a positive effect on the improvement of motor function and activities of daily living in hemiplegic patients after stroke, but the improvement of balance function is not sure. Due to the low overall quality of the included literature and the heterogeneity of some research results, more rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to verify its efficacy.
Related Articles | Metrics
Comparison of posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress of nurses with physicians and medical students after caring of COVID-19 patients
Roghayeh AKBARI, Mahbobeh FARAMARZI, Hemmat GHOLINIA
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (1): 50-58.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_101_22
Abstract31)      PDF(pc) (642KB)(40)      

Objectives: The present study compared the prevalence and psychosocial factors affecting posttraumatic growth (PTG), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychological distress in nurses, physicians, and medical students.
Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, three groups of medical staff including nurses (n = 57), physicians (n = 40), and medical students (n = 34) who were responsible for the care/treatment of COVID-19 patients admitted to a general hospital for 4 months responded to Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Brief Symptom Inventory-18, Resilience Questionnaire, PTSD Screen, and Social Capital-Integrated Questionnaire.
Results: After the exposure of medical staff to at least 4 months of treatment/care of COVID-19 patients, PTG prevalence was higher than PTSD (38.2% vs. 14.6%), but they experienced some degrees of psychological distress (65.5%). The nurses had 8.33 (confidence interval [CI]: 2.5–26.7) times higher PTG rate than medical students (P < 0.001). Physicists also experienced 5.00 (CI: 1.4–26.7) times higher PTG than medical students (P < 0.001). PTG was aided by age, married status, strong resilience, and high social capital, but gender had no influence. Resilience played an important protective role to prevent the incidence of psychological distress in nurses, medical students, and physicians.
Conclusion: Despite the fact that the PTSD and psychological distress were same in the three groups of medical staff, the nurses had a greater rate of PTG than physicians and medical students.

Related Articles | Metrics
The effect of risk perception and COVID-19 anxiety in pregnancy on decision-making via the Internet and prenatal care quality: A cross-sectional multivariate analysis
Ayşe Taştekin OUYABA, Şehadet TAŞKIN
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (1): 27-32.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_52_22
Abstract31)      PDF(pc) (769KB)(39)      

Background: Risk perception and COVID-19 anxiety in pregnant women restrict access to health services, cause pregnant women to resort to alternative channels such as the Internet, and affect prenatal care quality (PCQ) negatively.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of risk perception and COVID-19 anxiety in pregnancy on decision-making via the Internet (DMI) and PCQ with multivariate analysis.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 406 pregnant women selected using the convenience sampling method in a training and research hospital, in Turkey. The data were collected using the information form, the perception of pregnancy risk questionnaire, the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, the DMI Scale, and the PCQ Scale. The data obtained were subject to descriptive analysis and the multivariate analysis of variance.
Results: Approximately 24.9% of the pregnant women were found to have a high perception of risk and 18% had symptoms of COVID-19 anxiety. Pregnant women with high COVID-19 anxiety and a higher perception of risk perceived the Internet as less influential for decision-making (P < 0.05). Pregnant women with a high-risk perception had lower PCQ (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: The findings can be used to enhance mental health and resilience in pregnant women and to formulate appropriate intervention strategies.

Related Articles | Metrics
Evaluation of adolescent/youth‑friendly sexual and reproductive health services: A 7‑year systematic review from January 2016 to April 2022
Oladayo Damilola AKINWALE, Cecilia Bukola BELLO, Oluwaseyi Abiodun AKPOR, Mayowa Grace ELEMILE
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2022, 4 (4): 177-192.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_79_22
Abstract27)      PDF(pc) (687KB)(6)      

Adolescent/youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS) play a vital role in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with adolescent SRH. This review examined studies carried out on adolescent/youth-friendly SRHS with focus on availability, accessibility, utilization as well as perception of health care providers, and adolescents about the services. The study design was systematic review of empirical studies using a well-defined strategy. Online journal was searched comprehensively using Web of Science, Google Scholars databases, PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE. Other sources were identified through the scanning of references of selected sources. The articles selected were between 2016 and 2022 and had qualitative/quantitative and mixed methods. The articles that met the selection criteria were also screened using PRISMA-P guidelines and SPIDER framework for systematic review was further used for inclusion criteria based on the following concepts: sample, phenomenon of interest, design, evaluation and research type. A total number of 32 studies were included in the study and findings were reported based on the five emerging themes. The review showed that majority of the adolescents were not aware of adolescent/youth-friendly SRHS, some health care providers were not also in support of the services which accounted for low utilization of the services among adolescents. The review further showed poor accessibility and nonavailability of AYFSRHS as the only available SRHS were meant for married adults. Therefore, these findings serve as evidence for policy-makers at all the levels of healthcare delivery system to considered all the factors observed in this review and develop strategies that will make adolescent/youth-friendly SRHS available and accessible to adolescents. More so, other stakeholders, especially health care providers must improve their attitude toward provision of adolescent/youth-friendly SRHS.

Related Articles | Metrics
Psychiatric nursing: A specialty in greater demand
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (1): 73-74.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_82_22
Abstract24)      PDF(pc) (445KB)(34)      
Health-care professionals acquire negative and discriminatory attitudes toward mental health. Psychiatric nursing is considered a less valuable field and they choose to work in a psychiatric setting only when there are no other employment opportunities. The global burden of disease study (2017) shows that 197.3 million people had mental disorders in India and one in seven Indians were affected by mental disorders. Extending the theory and clinical posting hours in psychiatry helps to promote a sense of preparedness and reducing the negative stereotypes can contribute to develop an interest in a future career in psychiatric nursing. Mental health is the foundation for the well-being and effective functioning of an individual. They play a plethora of roles such as case manager (clinical nurse), mentor, lecturer, researcher, policymaker, counselor, and clinical psychologist. Hence, it is the right time to choose this right field, which has a lot of opportunities.
Related Articles | Metrics
Heart failure symptom burden, dietary intake, and inflammation: An integrative review of the literature
Erica DAVIS, Sandra DUNBAR, Melinda HIGGINS, Kathryn WOOD, Erin FERRANTI, Alanna MORRIS, Brittany BUTTS
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (2): 81-92.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_26_23
Abstract23)      PDF(pc) (694KB)(4)      

Heart failure (HF) is characterized by high symptom burden including, but not limited to fatigue, dyspnea, and edema. Up to 21.5% of HF patients experience significant depressive symptoms, much higher than 7.1% in adults without HF. Diet, metabolites, and other inflammatory mechanisms have gained notable attention in recent studies for contributions to symptoms in HF. Symptoms for black adults (B/As) with HF are often influenced by lifestyle factors, which may influence their higher mortality rates; few studies address these factors. Distinguishing the links between key elements with diet, inflammation, and symptoms may bring clarity for new dietary strategies in HF clinical care. The purpose of this integrative review is to examine the existing literature regarding relationships among physiologic pathways in HF along with physical and emotional symptoms in the context of inflammation, dietary intake, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), a biomarker of inflammation, and trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO). Based on available evidence, inflammation may be a key link between physical symptoms, diet, depression, TMAO, and TNF-a in persons with HF and warrants further examination to clarify pathological links to solidify evidence for better guidance with dietary modifications. The literature reviewed in this study demonstrates that more work is needed to examine dietary planning, social support, and differences between men and women in the B/A community. Results of this literature review call attention to the essential, personalized care needs related to symptom monitoring and dietary planning which is expected to decrease symptom burden in the HF population.

Related Articles | Metrics
The impact of nurses’ organizational commitment on their perceptions of the work environment: Strong mediating effect of the psychological contract
Pengxiang ZUO, Cengceng LU, Jing ZHOU, Ming HOU, Xiaohui JIAO
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (2): 115-121.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_118_22
Abstract20)      PDF(pc) (841KB)(9)      

Objective: The objective is to assess the direct and indirect effects of nurses' organizational commitment (OC) on their work environment perceptions (WEP) and the role of the psychological contract (PC).
Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative study of 3047 registered nurses in four Chinese hospitals was conducted. The Essentials of Magnetism II (Chinese version), OC, and PC scales were used in the study, and the structural equation modeling was used to assess the connections among variables.
Results: The results showed that OC was positively correlated with WEP (r = 0.561, P < 0.001), and PC was negatively correlated with the WEP (r =  0.717, P < 0.001), and OC (r =  0.739, P < 0.001). Nurses' PC played a strong mediating role between OC and WEP, accounting for 87.64% of the total effect. Besides, PC played an important role in creating a healthy work environment.
Conclusions: The exploration of the relationships among WEP, PC, and OC provides new insights for hospital managers to build a better work environment for nurses, which is conducive to maintaining a stable nurse team and providing high-quality nursing services for patients.

Related Articles | Metrics
Accessible and low‑ to zero‑cost remedy: Traditional medicine use during pregnancy and labor
Modupe Motunrayo ADAMOLEKUN, Oluwaseyi Abiodun AKPOR, Oghenerobor Benjamin AKPOR, Oluwakemi Elizabeth ADEOLA, Olusola Bolaji ADEWALE
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (2): 75-80.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_85_22
Abstract20)      PDF(pc) (483KB)(8)      

Traditional medicine (TM) has played an essential part in maternity services around the world, which has led to increased utilization among pregnant women. Herbs, herbal preparations, and completed herbal products are examples of TMs that contain active substances such as plant parts or other plant components that are thought to have therapeutic advantages. This study review aimed to identify the herbs commonly used, reasons for use, and effect of use, to make adequate recommendations on herbal medicine use as a remedy for pregnancy and labor. Incorporating evidence from reviews, personal correspondence, and diaries, this study demonstrates that about 80% of people used TM such as herbal remedies for sickness diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and promotion of general well-being. Due to its accessibility, cost, and availability, TM is usually used by expectant mothers. Examples of TM used in pregnancy and labor include honey, aloe, raspberry, jute mallow, and hibiscus leaves. It is important to note that its use in pregnancy and labor can be beneficial or harmful to both mother and child. Lack of standardization, financial risk, lack of safety, and effectiveness are challenges to TM. There is a need of creating awareness of the safe use and effects of TM in pregnancy and labor through the provision of health education programs for women in the community.

Related Articles | Metrics
Early warning systems for enteral feeding intolerance in patients with stroke
Guiying LIU, Yanyan ZHANG, Ling TANG
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (2): 132-137.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_121_22
Abstract20)      PDF(pc) (649KB)(5)      

Objective: The objective of this study was to construct an early warning system (EWS) to facilitate risk assessment, early identification, and appropriate treatment of enteral nutrition feeding intolerance (FI) in patients with stroke, so as to provide a reference for risk classification standards and interventions toward a complete EWSs for nursing care of stroke.
Materials and Methods: Based on evidence and clinical nursing practice, a structured expert consultation method was adopted on nine experts over two rounds of consultation. Statistical analysis was used to determine the early warning index for FI in patients with stroke.
Results: The expert authority coefficient was 0.89; the coefficients of variation for the two rounds of consultation were 0.088–0.312 and 0.096–0.214, respectively. There were significant differences in the Kendall's concordance coefficient (P < 0.05). Finally, 22 items in five dimensions of patient age, disease, treatment, biochemical, and enteral nutrition-related factors were identified.
Conclusion: The early warning index for FI in patients with a history of stroke is valid and practical. It provides a reference for the early clinical identification of FI risk.

Related Articles | Metrics
Drivers of early marriage and teenage pregnancy in Kenya and Uganda during COVID-19 lockdown period: A systematic review
Brian Barasa MASABA, Rose MMUSI-PHETOE, Jacklyne Atieno ODHIAMBO, Bernard RONO, Jane Wamuyu KABO, Damaris MORAA, Alex RUTTO, John Kennedy MOTURI, Thomas Ong’ondo NG’AMBWA, Damaris OCHANDA, Sammy Diana MAWIA, Mary KIPMEREWO, Samuel OYUGI, Stephenie Lydia OJIAMBO
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2022, 4 (4): 202-210.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_63_22
Accepted: 31 December 2022

Abstract19)      PDF(pc) (636KB)(3)      
Related Articles | Metrics
Training needs in intravenous infusion care for children in China: A cross-sectional study
Jingjing LI, Jiaxin FANG, Liu HAN, Junhan YANG, Xueyan FAN, Dahua ZHANG
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (2): 122-131.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_97_22
Abstract19)      PDF(pc) (661KB)(9)      

Aim: This study aims to evaluate demands for general and pharmacological knowledge and training related to intravenous (IV) therapy among pediatric nurses.
Materials and Methods: This multicentric cross-sectional study involved 12,707 pediatric nurses from 100 hospitals in China. A questionnaire was used to assess information about IV drug administration training received, and the demands for pharmacology-related knowledge, and corresponding methods of acquisition. A generalized linear model using Logit link function was employed to assess relationships between factors and multivariate analysis was conducted.
Results: More than 99% of participants showed their training demands for IV therapy training. Pediatric nurses' demands and methods for acquiring IV therapy knowledge and the knowledge related to IV therapy pharmacology have significant differences in social demographic factors, previous knowledge, whether they have received training or not, and other factors (all P < 0.05). Received a needlestick injury in the past month (P = 0.007) and knowledge acquired through in-hospital or out-of-hospital training (P = 0.039) were factors that reduced the demands for methods to acquire further pharmacology-related knowledge of IV therapy. Working in internal medicine (P = 0.025) and not having experienced a needlestick injury in the past year (P = 0.007) reduced the demands for IV therapy knowledge. Attended hospital (P = 0.007) or departmental meetings (P = 0.009), being pediatric primary nurses (P = 0.044), and studied special IV guidelines (P = 0.006) reduced the desire for methods to acquire IV therapy knowledge.
Conclusion: There was a high demand for greater general and pharmacological knowledge related to IV therapy among pediatric nurses. Resources should be coordinated to provide ongoing training to nurses to improve the quality of IV care.

Related Articles | Metrics
Impact of designed infection control educational program on nurses’ knowledge and compliance with standard precautions at maternity hospitals
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (2): 138-144.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_120_22
Abstract18)      PDF(pc) (727KB)(6)      

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the nurses' knowledge and compliance with infection control standard precautions and evaluate the impact of the designed infection control educational program on nurses' knowledge and compliance with standard precautions at the maternity hospital.
Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design was used on convenient sample of 60 nurses working at Obstetrics and Gynecological hospital in Cairo University Hospital, Kasr El Ainy, who received “designed infection control educational program” for 6 months. The data were collected through the questionnaire comprising demographics, knowledge, and compliance with standard precautions questionnaire. The nurses' knowledge and compliance score were compared before and after intervention.
Results: The studied nurses had higher level of knowledge (85.3%) and compliance (92.8%) regarding infection control standard precautions after the educational program compared to before the program. The results revealed statistically significant difference between before and after the program regarding nurses' knowledge score (15.5 ± 2.9 vs. 17.1 ± 1.6, P < 0.001) and compliance score (58.5 ± 13.2 vs. 74.3 ± 5.1, P < 0.001). In addition, there was insignificant relation between nurses' knowledge and compliance with standard precautions both before (r = 0.952, P = 0.474) and after educational program (r = 0.164, P = 0.223).
Conclusion: The nurses' level of knowledge and compliance regarding infection control standard precautions was significantly improved after the program. Therefore, it is recommended that periodical educational programs regarding the standard precautions of infection control are essential for nurses at maternity hospital.

Related Articles | Metrics
Dredging hand Yang meridians with deep tissue massage combined with neck movement in stiff‑neck syndrome: A randomized controlled trial
Xueguo SUN, Zonghua QI, Ying LIU, Yan LI, Xianli DOU, Lingyun ZHANG
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2022, 4 (4): 211-216.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_26_22
Accepted: 31 December 2022

Abstract17)      PDF(pc) (982KB)(1)      

Objective: The objective of this study is to observe the therapeutic effects of dredging hand Yang meridian with deep tissue massage combined with neck movement on stiff-neck syndrome.
Materials and Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial. The consecutive patients with the stiff-neck syndrome were randomly allocated into the intervention group and patch group (1:1) according to the random number table. The intervention group was treated with dredging hand Yang meridian with deep tissue massage combined with neck movement once a day for 3 days, while the patch group therapy was treated with a 3-patch therapy and every patch included 24-h patch and 24-h patch-free. A needle electromyogram would be exerted if the patients were at their willingness in different stages. The pain of patients was assessed by Visual Analog Scale in the two groups at every 24 h time point.
Results: Finally, 212 patients completed the trial, 106 in each group. The curative rate in the intervention group was higher than in the patch group (99.06% vs. 84.91%, χ2 = 0.890, P < 0.01). Repeated measures of the general linear model showed a significant difference in pain score within the subject-factors (factor of time F = 4548.577, P < 0.001; factor of time-group F = 490.034, P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between groups regarding pain score (F = 3016.315, P < 0.001).
Conclusion: Dredging hand Yang meridian with deep tissue massage combined with neck movement is better than patch therapy in stiff-neck syndrome, with a shorter duration and instant effects.

Related Articles | Metrics
Pediatric thermal burn injury: A retrospective analysis from pediatric care institutes, Eastern India
Kartik Chandra MANDAL, Sourav ROY, Pankaj Kumar HALDER, Partha CHAKRABORTY, L. NEILASANO, Debasree GUHA
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (2): 108-114.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_4_23
Abstract17)      PDF(pc) (589KB)(5)      

Objective: Pediatric burns pose difficult healthcare issues in underdeveloped nations. Due to the scarcity of pediatric burn care facilities and qualified burn-care staff, patients are frequently referred from a rural hospital. This study explores the burn-treatment approach that could be used in rural hospitals in the absence of a dedicated pediatric burn care facility.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of clinical data of 199 children who received treatment for burn-injury in an isolated general surgical ward. Wound debridement under anesthesia at the earliest was the cornerstone of the treatment plan for this cohort. Until the wounds healed, the treatment was repeated every alternate day. The patient's demographic data, number of surgical dressings, length of hospital stay, and outcome were analyzed.
Results: The mean age of the patients was 51.68 ± 23.79 months. The male-female ratio was 1.45:1. The survival rate was 99.00%. The disability rate was 4.52%. Univariate logistic regression identified the age group, total body surface area affected, depth of the wound, and time of intervention as statistically significant variables (P < 0.05) predicting the disfigurement. Multivariate logistic regression identified the time intervals between surgical intervention and injury as an important predictor of morbidity. In addition, delayed presentation and delayed intervention led to a longer hospital stay, and more interventions than the early intervention cohort.
Conclusions: Early debridement accelerates recovery and lessens the need for future skin grafts or contracture procedures. This approach can be used in rural hospitals as well because pediatric burns can be manageable in an isolated general ward.

Related Articles | Metrics
Intensive care environment: Perspective of relatives of critically ill patient sustained by health technology
Chinomso Ugochukwu NWOZICHI, Olaolorunpo OLORUNFEMI
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (2): 102-107.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_117_22
Abstract17)      PDF(pc) (848KB)(7)      

The intensive care unit (ICU) is a complex setting by nature, and some have described it as bizarre due to its numerous sirens that sound when anything is dangerous, constant activity, equipment, bright lights, and high fatality rate. The demands placed on nurses to care for critically ill patients in this environment frequently prevent nurses and other health-care professionals from acknowledging the feelings of patient's relatives or family caregivers, resulting in a hostile environment from the patient's relative's perspective. When a patient's family enters the ICU, they feel that hospital administrators do little to nothing to alleviate their discomfort and fear. Despite research demonstrating the importance of providing a homely environment for patients' families, In Nigeria ICU is still far behind how a conventional ICU environment should be structured to accommodate patient's relations in the unit. The goal of this study was to look at the patient's relative's perspective on providing care for a critically ill patient in an ICU, with a focus on the unit's complexity and overall experience. Based on the findings of this study, we recommend that hospital administrators ensure that the environment of the upcoming ICU is designed to meet the needs of patient's relatives by addressing identified environmental concerns, like caring neglect, by providing a friendly and stress-free environment.

Related Articles | Metrics
Operating procedures of traditional Chinese medicine breast massage
Jingjin XU, Hong CHEN, Jing ZHANG, Jiaji LI, Ye LI, Ling TANG
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (2): 151-154.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_27_23
Abstract16)      PDF(pc) (516KB)(5)      

Traditional Chinese medicine breast massage, also known as breast Tuina or manual expression of breast milk, is a technique of using certain manipulations to act on specific positions or acupoints of the breast to promote blood and lymphatic circulation of breast and facilitate the discharge of stagnant milk. This technique is widely used in China to treat breastfeeding problems such as breast engorgement, mastitis, and postpartum hypogalactia. In this article, we introduce the definition and standardization process of breast massage, elaborate the operating procedures of breast massage in detail, and summarize and discuss the current situation of its clinical application, so as to provide a reference for its wide application and in-depth research.

Related Articles | Metrics
Prevalence of social media addiction among nursing students
Marwa Mamdouh SHABAN, Nagah Mahmoud ABDOU, Mahmoud Magdy EID, Mostafa Ahmed IBRAHIM, Mohammed Saad El Dean METWALY, Mohamed Abdeltwab SAYED, Youmna Magdy Abdulwahab MANSOUR, Fatma Saad RAMADAN
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (2): 145-150.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_127_22
Abstract16)      PDF(pc) (588KB)(5)      

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and level of social media addiction among nursing students in the Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional research design was conducted on samples of 340 students at the Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University. Data were collected through demographic background information sheet and Social Networking Addiction Scale.
Results: All the students were addicted as 6.76% were severely addicted and 60.59% and 32.65% were moderately and mildly addicted, respectively. Significant relations were found between social media addiction and students' age (χ2 = 11.331, P = 0.003), educational level (χ2 = 20.239, P = 0.003), and grade point average (χ2 = 19.378, P = 0.013).
Conclusion: Internet addiction was prevalent among all students but at different levels, so early screening of students for Internet addiction using the Internet Addiction Scale is important to provide early treatment and prevent hazards to health.


Related Articles | Metrics
Diabetes self-management education: Benefits and challenges
Ibironke Cecilia OJO, Elizabeth Olufunmilayo OJO, Simeo Kayode OLUBIYI
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (2): 93-101.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_105_22
Abstract16)      PDF(pc) (565KB)(5)      

Diabetes mellitus has spread throughout many nations of the world and is now a serious threat. A lack of patient self-management has been linked to this drain on global health. The consequences of diabetic patients' poor self-management have increased a variety of complications and lengthened hospital stays. Poor information and skill acquisition have been linked to poor self-management. Participating in a co-operative approach known as diabetes self-management education will help diabetes patients who want to successfully self-manage their condition and any associated conditions. Information is one of the most important components of a diabetes management strategy. In conclusion, numerous studies have shown that patients with diabetes have poor self-management skills and knowledge in all areas, making training in diabetes self-management necessary to minimize the complications that may result from diabetes mellitus among the patients. This review discussed the severity of diabetes mellitus, diabetes self-management, and the benefits and challenges of diabetes self-management, which may aid individuals in understanding the significance of diabetes self-management and how it relates to diabetes self-care.

Related Articles | Metrics
Symptom experience in patients with cancer-related fatigue: A systematic review and meta-synthesis
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2022, 4 (4): 193-201.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_66_21
Abstract16)      PDF(pc) (697KB)(3)      

To understand the real experiences of patients with cancer-related fatigue and to promote quality of life, the researchers used computer searches of PubMed, EMbase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biology Medicine disc, Wanfang Data, China Science and Technology Journal Database for relevant qualitative studies from the inception to November 1, 2021. The results showed that a total of 16 papers were included, and 57 outcomes were distilled into 9 categories, which were pooled into four integrated outcomes, such as somatic, psychological and social support and so on. It is concluded that patients with cancer-related fatigue are not only in the midst of multidimensional, unspeakable somatic experiences, and complex psychological experiences, they are also hindered in coping with fatigue symptom and social life. Therefore, healthcare professionals should provide health interventions and psychological support to those patients whenever possible.

Related Articles | Metrics
Operation rules of scraping technique
Hong CHEN, Dongpan FAN, Jing HE, Jin ZHAO, Ling TANG
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2022, 4 (4): 245-250.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_20_22
Online available: 31 December 2022

Abstract16)      PDF(pc) (503KB)(1)      

Traditional Chinese medicine scraping is a kind of natural therapy with a long history of simple and safe operation. It is easy to learn and tools are readily available, so that it has a very wide range of practical value. This paper introduces the definition and indications, function and standardization process of scraping technology, the technical operation specifications and matters needing attentions, as well as the application method of scraping technology, with a view to providing reference for clinical use of scraping technology in the treatment of cervical spondylosis, periarthritis of shoulder, lumbar muscle strain, hypertension, chloasma, and other diseases.

Related Articles | Metrics
Quality of life and psychological impact among chronic disease patients during the COVID-19 pandemic
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2022, 4 (4): 217-223.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_76_22
Abstract16)      PDF(pc) (602KB)(1)      

Objective: Patients diagnosed with chronic disease may experience psychological symptoms including depression, anxiety, insomnia, and fatigue, all of which may adversely affect their quality of life (QoL). The main objective of this study is to identify the level of QoL, to know the prevalence of these symptoms among chronic disease patients in Oman during the third wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and to explore the contributing factors.
Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive correlational design was used. Convenience sampling was used to recruit participants. Data were collected using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Therapy (FACT)–General, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index, and the FACT–Fatigue subscale via Qualtrics? software. Linear regression analyses were used to explore factors that were associated with QoL.
Results: Of 990 patients with chronic disease who participated, the mean total QoL score was 67.7 (standard deviation = 16.1). Participants aged above 51, those with a basic education, those with heart disease, or those with more than one comorbidity had a significantly lower QoL. Linear regression revealed that the main factors associated with lower QoL included heart disease (β = 0.05, P = 0.02), diabetes (β = 0.12, P < 0.01), having taken one dose of COVID-19 vaccine (β = 0.05, P = 0.04), anxiety (β = -0.24, P < 0.01), depression (β = -0.31, P < 0.01), insomnia (β = -0.12, P < 0.01), and fatigue (β = 0.27, P < 0.01).
Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly reduced the individuals' level of QoL and affected the mental health of patients diagnosed with chronic diseases. Appropriate strategies to monitor psychological problems and interventions to prevent and reduce these among such patients are needed.

Related Articles | Metrics
Technical operation specification for cupping therapy
Yongchun WEI, Yali WANG, Haiyan E, Kaiye ZHANG, Ling TANG
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2023, 5 (2): 155-160.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_24_23
Abstract15)      PDF(pc) (545KB)(5)      

Cupping, as one of the characteristic therapies of traditional Chinese medicine, has been applied for more than 2000 years and has a unique curative effect in clinic. With the evolution of the times, the types and operation techniques of cupping method are also iterating. In the process of its inheritance and development, cupping technology is also known by more and more people. Starting from the development and efficacy of cupping method, this paper introduces the clinical operation steps and precautions of cupping method in detail, and lists the representative diseases such as lumbar muscle strain, herpes zoster, and ankylosing spondylitis, to provide reference for clinical application.


Related Articles | Metrics
A simple concept of fluid balance can be harder in the intensive care unit
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2022, 4 (4): 255-256.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_42_22
Abstract14)      PDF(pc) (446KB)(11)      
Related Articles | Metrics
Job satisfaction and organizational commitment among nurses working on temporary versus permanent jobs at a tertiary care teaching hospital, Uttarakhand, India
Neha PANCHAL, Suresh Kumar SHARMA, Rakesh SHARMA, Ritu RANI
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2022, 4 (4): 224-230.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_23_22
Abstract13)      PDF(pc) (620KB)(6)      

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess and compare job satisfaction and organizational commitment among nurses working on temporary versus permanent basis at a tertiary care teaching hospital, Uttarakhand, India.
Materials and Methods: A total of 250 nurses (125 temporary and 125 permanent) were selected using stratified disproportionate random sampling techniques from a tertiary care teaching hospital. Sociodemographic datasheet, Job Satisfaction Survey scale, and Organizational Commitment scale were used to collect data.
Results: The study results revealed that the job satisfaction score was significantly higher in permanent nurses (139.1 ± 15.4) than in temporary nurses (131.3 ± 12.2) (P < 0.001). However, temporary nurses (85.2 ± 14.4) were more committed toward organization than permanent nurses (80.0 ± 16.0) (P < 0.001). There was a significant association between nurses' job satisfaction and their gross salary (P < 0.001) and their organizational commitment with the selected profession by own will (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: The present study concluded that majority of temporary and permanent nurses reported a moderate level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This study suggests enhancing employee satisfaction can improve organizational commitment. As well, this study's findings can serve as a valuable foundation for designing policies to enhance organizational commitment in the future.

Related Articles | Metrics
Diabetes knowledge and self-care practices among people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a diabetes clinic in Southwestern Nigeria
Timothy Titilayo FAMAKINWA, Oyeninhun Abimbola OLUWATOSIN, Joel Olayiwola FARONBI, Funmilola Adenike FAREMI, Adeyemi OGUNLEYE, Chinma Stella ADERETI, Matthew Idowu OLATUBI
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2022, 4 (4): 239-244.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_47_22
Abstract12)      PDF(pc) (565KB)(0)      

Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the knowledge and self-care practices of people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a clinic in Southwestern Nigeria. It adopted a cross-sectional design. The sample consists of 107 people living with T2DM. Data were collected using Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire and Revised Self-care Inventory Scale.
Results: The mean diabetes knowledge of the participants was 16.2 ± 3.0 and 70.1% had inadequate knowledge of T2DM. The mean diabetes self-care practice score among the participants was 49.9 ± 4.9, and 89.7% reported poor diabetes self-care practice. There is no significant difference in the knowledge of diabetes between male (16.42 ± 3.42) and female (16.12 ± 2.8) participants (t = 0.45; P = 0.65), and no significant difference in self-care practice of male (49.23 ± 4.51) and female (50.06 ± 5.07) participants (t = 0.75, P = 0.46). In addition, there is no correlation between age and knowledge of diabetes (r = -0.18, P = 0.07) and self-care practices (r = 0.08, P = 0.38) of participants. No significant relationship was found between knowledge of diabetes and diabetes selfcare practices (χ2 = 1.605, P = 0.448)
Conclusion: Knowledge of diabetes and self-care practices of people living with T2DM in this study were poor. Effort should be directed at improving their diabetes knowledge and self-care practices.

Related Articles | Metrics
Nursing students' experiences of horizontal violence and occupational belonging during clinical placements
Ozge SUKUT, Cemile Hurrem AYHAN
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2022, 4 (4): 231-238.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_15_22
Accepted: 31 December 2022
Online available: 31 December 2022

Abstract12)      PDF(pc) (586KB)(1)      

Background: Horizontal violence has negatively affected the students' active learning, interpersonal relationship, and occupational belonging. However, little attention has been paid to the relationship between horizontal violence and occupational belonging among nursing students.
Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the frequency, types, perpetrators, effects, and responses of horizontal violence experienced by nursing students and the relationship between occupational belonging and horizontal violence.
Materials and Methods: The present study used a descriptive, cross-sectional survey design. The data were collected from the 277 undergraduate nursing students selected by convenience sampling method using personal characteristics form, horizontal violence survey, and occupational belonging subscale at nursing faculty in Istanbul.
Results: The first three horizontal violence behaviors experienced by nursing students were found, respectively: being forced to do trivial and unimportant work which are not the students' responsibility (84.1%), being exposed to sarcastic remarks by nurses (80.9%) and unwillingness of the nurse to help and lack of support (80.9%) and being ignored by nurses (77.3%). Nearly half of the students (48.4%) considered leaving nursing profession as a result of horizontal violence. There was a negative relation between horizontal violence and occupational belonging (P < 0.05). As horizontal violence scores increased, occupational belonging scores decreased.
Conclusions: Findings from this study shown that horizontal violence decreasing occupational belonging, and so nursing students consider leaving nursing profession or education. Further studies are needed to better demonstrate addressing the horizontal violence bilaterally and the effective preventive interventions.

Related Articles | Metrics
A nurse-led occupational health promotion program for farmers
Indrakshi BASU, Rajadurai PREMAVATHY, Smritikana MANI
Journal of Integrative Nursing    2022, 4 (4): 251-254.   doi: 10.4103/jin.jin_17_22
Abstract10)      PDF(pc) (575KB)(0)      

Agrarian occupational health is a neglected primary health-care service in India. A nurse-led health promotion program is planned based on a Conceptual Model for the Occupational Health Nurse Specialist prepared by Ms. Janice Dees (1984) inspired from Orem's self-care theory. The interventions included are range of motion exercise, progressive muscle relaxation technique, foot and palm massage, and literacy on safety practices. The wellness of field farmers is expected by following this program plan.

Related Articles | Metrics